Categories: technology

Beyond The Basics Of Thin Film Deposition Control By Quartz Crystal Monitor

Thin Film Deposition is a vacuum technology for applying coatings of pure materials to the surface of various objects. The coatings, also called films, are usually in the thickness range of angstroms to microns and can be a single material, or can be multiple materials in a layered structure. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is a common class of techniques for this and includes Evaporation from a heated source. This paper discusses principles of Thin Film Deposition thickness and rate control by use of quartz crystal monitoring. In particular it will go beyond the basics into topics including co-deposition and multi crystal systems for PVD by Evaporation.

The key concept behind this type of measurement and control is that an oscillator crystal can be suitably mounted inside the vacuum chamber so that it receives deposition in real time and is affected by it in a measurable way. Specifically the oscillation frequency will drop as the crystal’s mass is increased by the material being deposited on it. To complete the measurement system, an electronic instrument continuously reads the frequency and performs appropriate mathematical functions to convert that frequency data to Thin Film Deposition thickness data, both instantaneous rate and cumulated thickness.

Such sensors and instruments are readily commercially available, including in various integrated models that not only read and display the rate and thickness data, but also provide outputs for Thin Film Deposition system control functions. Features vary by model, and you need to be sure to get one that has the features you require, but many can handle multiple independent crystal oscillators and some can also control multiple simultaneous sources.

The most common Thin Film Deposition systems have only a single source operating at one time, although such things as a multi pocket E Beam sources can have several different materials available for sequential selection and usage to make a multi layer film. And with only one material being evaporated at any moment, there is usually only a single crystal sensor, although it may be special type of sensor head that holds more than one crystal so a spare is ready if one fails during the run. But there can be times when it is necessary or desirable to position multiple crystal sensors around the chamber and average their signals for better control.

A good example of this would be a material that sublimates rather than melts – like dry ice, it just goes from solid to vapor inside the vacuum chamber without becoming liquid. Especially with larger size pieces of source material, such as chunks of silicon oxide, and an E Beam sweeping across them, there can be significant directivity to the vapor stream and it can change from moment to moment. Since the substrate holder normally rotates during the deposition, the substrates themselves can still come out reasonably uniformly coated as this vapor directivity is averaged out. But a single crystal in a single fixed location only sees the vapor at that point and does not get the benefit of averaging.

And this crystal is, in effect, “driving the bus”. When it thinks the proper thickness has been achieved, it will close the shutter and stop the Thin Film Deposition process, and the substrates have little likelihood of having achieved the same average thickness. So run-to-run repeatability can be very poor and quite frustrating. The solution to this problem is to have several crystals mounted in different location and take signals from all of them and average them out for the control function. There are controller models that can do this.

Even a single crystal has details to attend to, such as calibrating its thickness readings. It can, of course, only “see” the Thin Film Deposition that lands directly on itself, which is not what a user wants to know or to control. The user wants to know what is on the substrates, so physical measurements need to be made to compare to the crystal reading and a calibration factor (normally called “tooling” factor) needs to be calculated, programmed into the instrument, and then verified. With multiple crystals, this needs to be done for each of them, and there may also be the option of “weighting” them so that one sensor is counted on more heavily than another.

Although not nearly as common as single material layers, it is also possible to perform co-deposition where two sources are simultaneously operated to create a blended layer of two materials. There are inevitably some tradeoffs being made in such a system. You can have, for example, two E Beam guns in a chamber, but they cannot both occupy the exact same physical space. They cannot both be in the “perfect” position in the center of the chamber, and that becomes a Thin Film Deposition equipment design consideration. But, for co-deposition control, each source needs to have its own crystal sensor, and, ideally, neither sensor should be able to “see” the other source. If it did, there would be cross talk between the two and loss of control accuracy.

So the sensor mounting should include any necessary physical shielding on the sensor heads so that each has a good clear line of sight to its intended source but no line of sight to the other source. You also generally want to have some shielding between the sources themselves to avoid material cross contamination, and for E Beams, you also need to avoid magnetic interference between guns. But those source aspects are not really part of this paper and will not be discussed further

Once you have all of this taken care of, a suitable chamber with two sources and a suitable crystal control system with the right capability, co-deposition has some important considerations in terms of film programming. Although it is conceivable a user might want to do some unusual layer blending of material A and material B, the most common case is a simple ratio such as 50:50 or whatever through the entire layer, and we will discuss that case.

It is quite possible that the pre-conditioning phase will be different for the two materials, different ramp and soak settings. But remember, if you want both source shutters to open simultaneously in order to have co-deposition at the start of the layer, the duration of the pre-conditioning phase does need to be the same for both. The power levels can be different – no problem. But the total time needs to be the same or one shutter will open before the other and your film will begin in single material mode rather than co-deposition.

You also need to know what you really want your thin film material ratio to be including whether it is thickness based or mass based. The crystal controller is normally all thickness based, so if you want mass instead you need to take that into consideration. And you need to maintain the same rate ratio throughout the process as the final thickness ratio, or the shutters will not close together at the end and the co-deposition will cease when one closes.

Regardless of process type, though, single layer, multi layer, or co-deposition, there is always the potential for a crystal failure during a Thin Film Deposition run. Some models of sensor head hold one or more “spare” crystals and can automatically switch to a new crystal if one fails during the run (if the function is also supported by the controller). Otherwise, there are usually a couple of basic choices that can be made in the controller’s program: abort or complete the layer in “time-power” mode.

What this means is that the controller would take the last known data point – what was the power drive level and the deposition rate and the cumulated thickness at the moment the crystal failed – and just blindly maintain that same power drive for however much longer it would take at that same assumed constant deposition rate to reach the programmed final thickness and then close the shutter. If the power and rate have been fairly stable, this can work well. If they have been unstable, varying wildly, it is a real gamble

It is, of course, a user choice, and various factors should be considered such as whether stopping (aborting) at this point would necessarily mean scrapping all the substrates. In that case, it might be better to take a chance on “time-power” rescuing them.

There are many more aspects of quartz crystal monitoring and control of Thin Film Deposition, and instrument user manuals can provide a great deal of additional information. But quartz crystal control is a highly useful PVD technology and we hope the information presented here will be of help.

Categories: machine learning

The Website For The Blind

Giving donations to the needy, such as the visually impaired or people who are otherwise physically disabled, is very easy thanks to the advanced technology we have in the modernized world we live in today. Let’s be grateful for the inventions of computer and Internet, which have allowed the nonprofit organization Heritage for the Blind to establish an amazingly helpful website for the blind,

This organization aims to open the minds of the blind and visually impaired. Heritage for the Blind wants them to realize that there are people who understand what they’re going through and want to help. On their “Self-Help for Vision Loss” website, they offer necessary and relevant information.

What you will find

On this very useful website, you can find the list of Heritage for the Blind’s programs, resources, and services for the blind and visually impaired. One of these programs is the free distribution of Braille and large print materials. You can choose a large print book and download it for free on your computer. The books are health-related, on topics ranging from facts you need to know about certain diseases to appropriate medical management. The site also offers an online education course that involves basic computer training for free and with assistance.

Links and search databases are available for quick and easy searching of eye doctors near your home, as well as the locations of various vision rehabilitation agencies. The site supplies detailed information about common eye diseases, including their causes and prevention. You can also find effective strategies on how to protect your vision and how to cope with vision changes. Probably one of the most important services for the visually impaired provided on this website is the tips regarding home management: how you can prepare food, shop, dine, clean, and organize your household.

How you can help

For those who want to offer something for the visually impaired, the site also has a list of donation programs, and allows you to donate directly online. Contact information for Heritage for the Blind is also provided for those who have inquiries or are interested in donating.

The “Self-Help for Vision Loss” website was primarily created with the idea of providing easy access to services for the blind for free. These services help the visually impaired realize that their disability doesn’t have to hinder them from continuing to live their lives. For more details visit

Categories: future

Printer Hire for Business Development

At the same time, they may need to print good quality brochures, for promoting their events or campaign their causes. In such case printer hire will be the best option. Hire services can be utilized the maximum for the development of a business.

Printing cost: A small business that needs to printing of many numbers of copies of documents and material for marketing purposes, hire services will prove to be economical. However, the rates for hiring this equipment may vary depending on the duration for which the printer is taken on rent and the type of printer that need to be taken on rent.

Types of Printers: Various types will be available with the printer rental service company. Thermal, inkjet, laser and plotter are the types of printers that are available. Knowing the types of printers and understanding the requirements helps in choosing the most suitable equipment . People who need a computer printer for heavy printing work, a laser print will be the best option. Inkjet printer is suitable for those who only need printer for basic needs. It is easy to install and use. Various brands are available for rent such as Lexmark, Canon, HP and Epson. The prices may vary depending on the brand.

Technical Support: when the printers are used for heavy jobs, the chances are high that they may have some problems. if the printer is rented from a firm, the firm may offer timely and all round technical support. They will come on-site for repairing the printer. The repairing service will also be part of the rental package. The technical staff will also be right persons to handle printing of multi number of document and good quality graphics.

Advanced printing technology: Connecting multiple printers to the computer system needs lot of cables. Connecting the cables is a confusing task. Thus a hire company can be asked if they have wireless server to connect the laser printer and computer. Using a wireless computer network requires no cables. When a printer is taken on rent, the staff of the rental firm will help in integrating the hardware to the network either at the exhibition, at the work place or at a business conference.

Printing Software: When a printer is taken on rent, the package includes the software that is needed for printing images and graphics. There will not be any requirement to purchasing the software, as the rental firm staff install and configure the required software. Another important thing is the printer equipment that is rented will be of good quality. The rental firm will ensure that the equipment is in working condition.

Categories: technology

What Does an Internet Company Listing Incorporate?

There is certainly loads of other bits of an online business directory and so they usually consist of trade leads, search tools, product catalogs plus many calls to action.

Trade Leads: The most attractive part is this one which supplies space to be used by the buyers and sellers in an online business directory. The business buyers and sellers both use this facet. It is self-explanatory for the reason that buyers will post in the purchase leads part for whatever products they want to buy leads for and the sellers will post in the sell leads part for whatever leads they have got for selling. The task of both the groups is made straightforward and their business aims get achieved.

Catalogs for Product: This is another useful component, which can be used as a cop for sales by the business sellers and so they utilize these catalogs for offering the detailed information regarding their product or service. The space eligible for catalogs is unconstrained and so making it easy for sellers to list their catalogs for however many products or services they are supplying. Business sellers are also in a position to update these catalogs whenever needed, so they could always have a current range of available stock listed.

Tools for searching: This is a further successful element which can be crucial and which allows the buyers and sellers to find any information regarding a products and services very easily which consequently helps them to avoid wasting time. It could be very time consuming searching for a precise business in an offline business directory. The web company listing edition makes it much simpler to locate using the search tools.

Action by Call: The directories that happen to be printed were utilized only for the purpose of commercials. Although this part in web directories may help the proprietor of the business to happily take advantage of the conversion of sales. If a user finds a company that fits his need he can take advantage of the buttons that happen to be there for mailing a query or for placing any order which the user shows interest in acquiring.

Through numerous components, the internet business directory supplies its care for both the buyers and also the sellers. These directories offer particular space to focus on the services and products featured which helps to get hold of greater publicity. Product reviews is an additional factor which will help the buyer in deciding on the company easily.

Categories: machine learning

How Heat Meters Can Help You Reduce Gas Bill

Heat meters show staggering amounts of gas bills during winter season because they become an inevitable luxury to help stay warm and comfortable. Since, not everyone is able to pay those mounting bills, the best solution is installing meters.

It is common that when there is only one heat meter installed in a multi-tenant complex for the purpose of using by all residents, the gas bills increase substantially. A lot of property owners do not know that each heating system like furnace, water heater, and fan coil and others can be easily metered in order to assess the usage level of each tenant.

Heat meters can be very helpful for tenants as they will not need to pay money for what they have not used. Heat meters enable tracking the usage of each customer so the bills are allocated to each consumer fairly. Another, benefit of it is that people will consume less heat because they know that their bills will only reflect their individual usage level and not as a whole. This will save energy and will surely help people get rid of high gas bill as well.

Also, when there are heat meters installed, there is a reduction in billing of other gas utilities because people become energy conscious. Another great advantage of installing meters is that there will be reduced billing rates because master-metered complexes are charged at commercial rates.

Installation of heat meters is not a difficult and costly process. You will only need to spend approximately $190 to $250 per unit to install wireless metering. This system will be able to collect and allocate separate billing for each consumer. But if a unit has a domestic furnace and water heater, you might have to spend as much as $400 to $500. These rates are applicable per unit as each one will require two meters.

The installation time is extremely quick. It usually takes a technician less than thirty minutes to install the entire system. However, if you wish to install a meter for an apartment or a 100 unit condominium, it will take at least 10 days and two technicians to install the meter.

It is legal in all states to install heat meters in condominiums and apartments. It is also important to mention in the rental agreement allowing property owner to charge bill

Categories: future

Finding Out More About PVC Overlay Film Varieties And More

With extended use and exposure to the elements PVC cards such as ATM cards and identity cards succumb to fading and overall damage. This deterioration makes it quite impossible for us to read the crucial information that they bear in addition to making them rather unpleasant to look at, and which is not good for the image of your organization. Just as in the case of paper documents or certificates, we can also laminate PVC cards. This is achieved by wrapping such a card in PVC overlay film and then subjecting it to sealing effects of the laminator equipment. The effects we achieve include high impact strength, edge tear resistance and reduction in color diffusion. PVC overlays thus simplify the card-making process as we need not incorporate reinforcement ingredients in the manufacture of PVC sheets.

Theoverlay film variety includes coated, uncoated and laser-engraved PVC sheets. With any of these films we should be interested in obtaining a product that exhibits high adhesion properties otherwise we will not achieve adequate sturdy lamination for the PVC cards. The best films among this variety are the types which work well with personalization processes, and which include the digital, thermo transfer and laser techniques. The films should also be able to handle and sustain both conventional and UV inks, and to project the prints in an eye-catchy style. It is also important to note that most PVC overlays come in thicknesses ranging from 60 to 300 micro-millimeters.

Laser overlays have found a major application with regards to driver licenses, national ID cards, employee badges and border crossing cards. This is because they fully support the use of laser engraving, a security enhancing tech that governments are employing so as to achieve tamper-evident cards. With laser engraving you can permanently engrave texts, fingerprints, signatures, logos, photos and barcodes at the substrate level, and which makes altering the information virtually impossible without destroying the card. Laser-engraved information also carries the advantages of being extremely durable, the ability to withstand frequent physical contact, and high resistance to chemicals. It is essential that the overlay film you go for has superior graphic visibility and high degree of clarity as these properties will ensure that your card will have the same great consistency it had before being laminated. Because the overlay film is so thin (??m) it is easy for it to suffer defects such as pinholes and gauge bands that are invisible to the naked human eye but which will compromise the quality of lamination. As such you should opt to source for films from a manufacturer who has the necessary equipment and quality control measures required to prevent such defects. A plus would be going for a manufacturer who can create the overlay films in a way that minimizes chances of air entrapment during the lamination process.

Categories: technology

Gather Detailed Information About Command And Control Room And Airport Check in Counter

In any organization, a huge requirement for 24/7 command and control room can be seen. Focus of this place is to support the needs of people and technology under mission critical situation. With all aspects in mind, design, coordination and installation of this kind of room is done. Design of this room is done very effectively, efficiently and ergonomically to meet the various requirements.

While considering the command and control room, we should not compromise with the infrastructure of this room. Upon confirming on the form and functionality, this kind of room should be made modern and updated. Any control room should not be deprived of facilities like, professional services, audio and visual as well as various IT related technological updates. Starting from operations center consoles to the lighting and seating, audio visual arrangements, access and raised flooring, custom mill work, architectural walls etc., everything is thoroughly arranged within this room.

In order to reduce the discomfort and fatigue of the operator inside the room, there should be enough arrangement of electrically-powered sit and stand consoles. With so many facilities like, slat wall-mounted monitor arms to handle sight lines and also ensure correct viewing angles to reduce neck, arm and eye stress. All these facilities should be made modular, so that they can be installed and de-installed so easily by saving the cost.

Besides control room, in this article, we will briefly discuss about airport check-in counter. This kind of service counter is found at commercial airports, which would be able to handle commercial air travel. This kind of check-in process is normally managed by an airline itself or by the handling agent. Heavy luggage and hand bag of the passenger can be handed over to the counter, which cannot be carried-on by passengers to the aircraft’s cabin. Upon receiving boarding pass from the counter, passengers proceed to board their aircraft.

Once passengers enter the airport, they are directed towards airport check-in counter. Airline regulations allow passengers to check-in by certain times, just prior to the departure of the flight. Time span can vary from 15 minutes to 4 hours, depending on the destination and airline. During this period, passengers are allowed to ask for their seat preferences, make changes to reservations, inquire about flight or destination information etc. The main role of the airport check-in is to check luggage and send them to the aircraft’s cargo and provide boarding passes to the passenger.

Categories: machine learning

Canon Powershot A550- Perfect Choice of Photography Beginners

When people talk about photography, Canon is one name that naturally comes to mind. As you might have heard; Canon is one of world’s leading manufacturers of imaging and optical products such as cameras, photocopiers, steppers and computer printers. The company has been pioneer in imaging technology and has traversed a long journey starting from introducing Japan’s first 35 mm focal plane-shutter camera in 1933 to distributing modern day high definition digital multifunctional devices. If we talk about their digital cameras, Canon digicams have earned a distinct reputation worldwide for their high performance and superior quality pictures. The company started manufacturing and selling digital cameras in 1984 first introducing their RC series, followed by Power shot and Digital IXUS product range of digital cameras. This article will provide you information on Canon digital camera, Canon Power shot A550. Canon launched its Powershot product range in 1995 with different product series like Powershot A, D,E, G,SD, SX series. Canon Powershot ‘A series involved convenient to use, budget cameras for pro and advanced amateur photographers. Canon Powershot A 550 is a handy, budget camera with high quality, detailed imaging and competent pictures. Some of the key features of Canon Powershot A 550 are: * 7.10 Megapixel High resolution image sensors * Wider 2 inches LCD screen * Compatibility with SDHC memory cards for accommodating large file sizes * Energy efficient rechargeable AA NiMH batteries, facilitating a whopping shoot 1,400 shots * 4.00x zoom(35-140mm eq.) zoom lenses for more detailed, clear pictures * Auto and In-built flash,easy to set scene modes Canon Powershot A550 digital camera prices in India vary from Rs.7, 990 to 8, 495. Canon digital camera is a high value product offering certain special and can be great experience for serious beginning amateur case you have started digital imagining, Canon Powershot A 550 can be the best buy as it’s easy to use and can’t be yours without burning big hole in your camera saves you from the burden of carrying bulky SLR cameras and at the same time provides great photography experience.

Categories: future

Drupal Developers Offering Comprehensive Drupal Services

Probably, we all know that Drupal is a most popular and powerful CMS platform for building interactive websites. But, do we know besides building engaging websites, it carries a lot of potential in itself. You need to select and consult a right partner who can familiarize you with the unlimited potential and benefits this powerful and smart CMS platform can bring it for you.

Extending your CMS system’s flexibility

Proper planning of workflow & specification, functional specification and design concept can avoid significant problems in later stages. Using Drupal coding standards and best practices, Drupal developers can build website that is easy to navigate and allows them to direct their customers to relevant information. Moreover, it will cost you less and benefit you more in the long run in the form of customizing your CMS system’s and extending its flexibility. This will better align with your business objectives with no timeline overruns.

Developing sophisticated and robust applications

This powerful CMS is a fully capable open source CMS for developing sophisticated and robust applications and social media networks. This CMS has been widely adopted by the world’s leading organizations, biggest brands and even governments for building complex websites to manage huge influx of visitor traffic. Drupal programmers are specialized in offering comprehensive services to take your initiative to the next level. They will handle the day to day maintenance of the website and constantly seek for ways to make the client’s web initiatives as successful as possible. Moreover, they will help keep application robust, secure and smooth. And, always keep an eye on the latest web trends to ensure how to better engage the visitors online.

Integrate Drupal with SugarCRM

Integrating Drupal with the most powerful platform SugarCRM work wonders for your business. Connecting these two open source platforms can give your contacts the chance to login to your website, edit their profiles, project related information, or simply see leads being generated from your website.

Migration your existing CMS System

While migrating your existing CMS system, a bad data handling is the major reason of failure in implementing the new content management system. Drupal migration developers offer the deepest and broadest capabilities to fulfill the requirements of any business. Whether you want to migrate your existing CMS to Drupal or looking to migrate Drupal 5 to 7 or 6 to 7, they have experience in extracting data from the source system, correcting errors, reformatting and restructuring and loading the data into a replacement target system without any downtime.

With a host of cutting-edge features, supported by impressive performance levels, Drupal programmers offer you a host of innumerable options and benefits available with this robust open source platform.

Categories: technology

iPad Versus Kindle

Ipad is External Light, Kindle is internal Light!

Wondering what the statement refers to? It refers to the fact that ipad, despite being externally flashy and twinkling with LED is a little darker for you because it deviates you from the purpose. With tons of interesting applications, you are never able to focus on one thing. While Kindle is a little darker outside, with no flashy hardware yet with its millions of eBooks that you can easily read, it lights the eternal light of knowledge within you. Hence if you are a reader, I would suggest you to grab the ever friendly book reader called Kindle and I bet you will find yourself emotionally attached to it in a few days.

Kindle is eye friendly while iPad is not!

Ipad is a smaller version of LCD, which is always stressful to eyes. And if you want to truly enjoy the pleasures of bedtime reading with no stress on your eyes, I would again recommend you to go for Kindle, as its e-ink screen is just like an imitation of print page, which will give you the happiness of reading entire books on a little thin gadget called Kindle.

The Irresistible appeal of Apple

No matter how easy, reliable and health friendly Kindle is, you simply can’t resist the ‘sex appeal’ of Apple! It’s cool and funky, where kindle will only provide you a library to delight yourself with reading, Apple’s ipad will open for you the door to whole new world of tech and fun, a companion with which you can watch movies, listen music, read, browse, play and so much more you can’t resist.

Ipad encapsulates LIFE!

If you truly want to enjoy a life-encapsulating experience, go for Apple’s ipad! Because Kindle is just a digital book, it meets a reader’s need in a very dull way, while apple goes beyond than just being a digital book! It gives you a slice of life, prettied up with the twinkle of technology. You can swipe through the pages on an ipad in a relaxing mood, while on kindle; you have to attentively click a button.

Watch out your budget!

Price is something, which makes kindle a better choice than ipad, but again ipad with all its functions and fancy appeal is worth its price. However, Kindle is reasonable along with its free 3G that saves you the headache of tariff and mobile operators. Plus, a battery life more than a week will just make you forget, it’s a tech gadget and not a virtual library.

Amazon’s Kindle and Apple’s ipad! Choose your gadget wisely by keeping in mind your needs, demand and personality. If you are status conscious, who wants an extra oomph with his gadget, go grab the fancy ipad, but if education is your soul purpose, Kindle is the best choice for you. Plus the best place to buy them online is off course the shopping giant Amazon, where you can easily find discount Amazon coupons, available with different deals throughout the year.

So what are you waiting for, get your discount Amazon coupon and grab your heart’s gadget in affordable range at Amazon online store!